1. Author is an expert in the field. The article will typically provide author credentials.
2. Formal and technical language used in the article.
3. Provides a specific focus of the article that contributes to the field.
4. Not brief - typically several pages with a specific format.
5. May include data in charts or graphs. Fewer design features that are typically found in popular magazines.
6. The format includes an abstract along with some of all of the following -
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